Talk by Daniel Zwillinger
NIST
5 June 1998
This file contains:
(1) a list of slide titles (hyperlinked), and
(2) contents of each slide.
 Creating Electronic Technical Books
 Creating electronic technical books
 Overview
 Why do electronic publishing?
 How to do electronic publishing?
 Who has done electronic publishing?
 IETM I
 IETM II
 IETM: Class 1 (Electronically indexed pages)
 IETM: Class 2 (Electronically Scrolling Documents)
 IETM: Class 3 (Linearly Structured IETMs)
 IETM: Class 4 (Hierarchically Structured IETMs)
 IETM: Class 5 (Integrated Database)
 IETM: Results
 Zwillinger publishing experience
 Aztec publishing experience
 Abramowitz and Stegun: Survey results
 Handbook of Mathematical Functions
 Abramowitz and Stegun: Extensions I
 Abramowitz and Stegun: Extensions II
 Abramowitz and Stegun: Recommendations I
 Abramowitz and Stegun: Recommendations II
 Example of phases for G&R
 Mathematical books
Creating Electronic Technical Books
NIST
5 June 1998
Daniel Zwillinger
http://www.mathtable.com/zwilling/talks/19980605/19980605_nist.html
Creating electronic technical books
Creating electronic books (or converting print books) can be done
straightforwardly (and poorly) or with additional effort (and well).
Considerations include:
 How to locate information (the linear read of a print book is not
the ideal way to locate a chunk of information),
 How to turn the text information into "chunks" (many screenfuls of
material is not useful)
 How to implement the product (avoid proprietary technologies)
 How to define a framework for contributors (multiplatform
conventions must be established and enforced)
This talk will detail experiences the author has had in all of these
steps. Results may be found at http://www.aztec.com/epub/
Overview
 Review electronic publishing capabilities/desires
 Zwillinger (and Aztec) experience in print/electronic publishing
 User survey of Handbook of Mathematical Functions (A&S)
 Comments on Handbook of Mathematical Functions
 Recommendations
Why do electronic publishing?
 Print versions getting too large (CRC has many 2000+ pages
"handbooks")
 Too much information available (difficult to find desired
result)
 Cheaper to produce, distribute, revise
 Electronic publishing allows new capabilities
 Frequently more useful than print version
 How information will be presented in future
How to do electronic publishing?
 Desires
 Want reusable components
 Can handle all types of relevant components
(hyperlinks,
mathematical typesetting,
graphics,
indexing,
crossreferences,
numerical computations)
 Easy to distribute (i.e., on net or CDROM)
 Usable on large number of platforms
 Avoid using proprietary software packages
 Product should have "publish on demand" capability
 Product should be easy to revise
 Conclusion
 Use net browser
 Construct product in HTML, Javascript, Java, and publically
available plugins
 Design investment required
Who has done electronic publishing?
 Government
 Industry
 Software manufacturers: Mathematica notebooks, Maple worksheets,
Macsyma notebooks
 Publishers: CRC, AP, AW, etc
 Education: Houston Community College System,
Logal (http://www.logal.com)
 Other
 latex2html converts "vanilla" LaTeX into "vanilla" HTML
IETM I

David Taylor Model Basin, Carderock Division, Naval Surface
Warfare Center (CDNSWC) provides Navy with expertise in technical
information publishing areas.
 They are the Navy's focal point for SGML (ISO 8879), the Navy
DTD/FOSI Repository, and lead laboratory for the TriService
(Navy, Air Force, Army) effort in the standardization and
development of Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETM).

An IETM is a technical manual designed for electronicwindow
display, with the characteristics:

Format/style optimized for window presentation to assure
maximum comprehension; format is "frameoriented", not
"pageoriented".

The technical data is interrelated so that a user's access to
the information is facilitated to the greatest extent
possible, and is achievable by a variety of paths.

The IETM display device can function interactively in
providing procedural guidance, navigational directions, and
supplemental information.
IETM II

MILM87268 and MILD87269 define the process for authoring and
displaying IETMs. They implement an underlying strategy that separates
the IETM source database from the electronic display of the formatted
IETM. MILM87268 defines how the IETM should look and behave to
the reader. MILD87269 establishes the IETM database forms,
structure, and key controlling mechanisms. MILQ87270 establishes
quality standards for IETMs.
 There are five classes of IETMs
 Conclusion:
Want a single database containing all information.
User interaction is a database request.
IETM: Class 1 (Electronically indexed pages)
 Display
 Full page viewing
 Pageturner/Next function
 Intelligent index for user access to page images
 Page integrity preserved
 Data Format
 BitMap (raster)
 Indexing and header files (Navy Mil 29532)
 MILR28001 or Postscript pages
 Generic COTS imaging system formats
 Functionality
 Access pages by intelligent index/header information
 View page with pan, zoom, etc., tools
 Limited use of hotspots
 Useful for library or reference use
IETM: Class 2 (Electronically Scrolling Documents)
 Display
 Primary view is scrolling text window
 Hotspot access (hyperlinks) to other text or graphics
 User selection and navigation aids (keyword search, online indices)
 Minimal textformatting for display
 User selectable call to (launch) another process
 Data Format
 Text  ASCII
 Graphics  whatever viewer supports  e.g., BMP or CALS
 Can be SGML tagged  no page breaks (browser)
 Access/index often COTS dependent with hypertext browser
 Generic: COTS with hypertext browser
 Functionality
 Browse through scrolling information
 User selection of graphics or hotspot reference to more text
 Hotspot and crossreference usually added after original authoring
IETM: Class 3 (Linearly Structured IETMs)
 Display
 View smaller logical block of text  less use of scrolling
 Interaction through dialog boxes
 Text and graphic simultaneously displayed in separate window when keyed together
 Data Format
 Linear ASCII with SGML tags
 SGML with content vice format tags
 Maximum use of MILD87269
 Generic: SGML tags equivalent to MILD87269
 Functionality
 Dialogdriven interaction
 Logical display of data in accordance with content
 Logical NEXT and BACK functions
 Userselectable crossreferences and indices
 Content specific help available
IETM: Class 4 (Hierarchically Structured IETMs)
 Display
 View smaller logical block of text  very limited use of scrolling
 Interaction through dialog boxes with user prompts
 Text and graphic simultaneously displayed in separate window when keyed together
 Data Format
 Fully attributed database elements (MILD87269)
 Authored directly to database for interactive electronic output
 Data managed by a DBMS
 Interactive features "authored in" vice addedon
 Functionality
 Dialogdriven interaction
 Logical display of data in accordance with content
 Logical NEXT and BACK functions
 Useful as interactive maintenance aid
 Userselectable crossreferences and indices
 Content specific help available
IETM: Class 5 (Integrated Database)
 Display
 Same as Class 4 for IETM function
 Expert system allows same display session and view system to provide simultaneous access to many differing functions (e.g., supply, training, troubleshooting)
 Data Format
 IETM info integrated at the data level with other application info
 Does not use separate databases for other application data.
 Identical to Class 4 standards for IETM applications data
 Coding for Expert Systems and AI modules when used
 Functionality
 Single viewing system for simultaneous access to multiple info sources
 Same as Class 4 for IETM functions
 Expert system to assist in NEXT functions, based on information gathered in session
IETM: Results

"IETMs allow the user to locate required information faster and
more easily than is possible with a paper technical
manual. IETMs, when designed to the DoD IETM specifications, are
easier to comprehend, more specifically matched to the system
configuration under diagnosis, and are available in a form that
requires much less physical storage space than paper."

Nugent et at. 1987 indicated that maintenance technicians
using a computerbased electronic document with artificial
intelligence assistance on troubleshooting completed tasks in
less than half the time it took those with paper manuals. Even
novices, using the electronic job aid, could troubleshoot 12%
faster than experienced technicians using paper manuals.
Zwillinger publishing experience
 Print publishing
 Have written two reference books (HODE, HOI)
 Have edited a reference book (CRC)
 Electronic publishing
 Have handed my own book off to others (CRC>Maple)
 Have translated book I have written (HODE)
 Have translated books written by others
(Stroyan, Schechter) (G&R in process)
Aztec publishing experience
 Effort required to
 Understand layout and macros (regularity is key)
 Rethink logical structure (linear read no longer appropriate)
 Decide on product granularity
 Design and construct interface
 Preprocess data and create static databases
 Fine tuning & testing
 Add capability not present in print product
 Indices: Complete indexing of entire work, and specialized ones
 Searching on functional aspects
(HODE: systems of PDEs, G&R: types of integrand)
 Popup figures/references
 Multilevel granularity for easy information location
 Electronic interactivity
 External: Mathematica notebooks, Maple worksheets, VRML
 Internal: Java programs, applets
Abramowitz and Stegun: Survey results
 Dave Isaacson (RPI)
 Definitions / Formulas / Algorithms for computing
/ Asymptotics / Graphs and Numbers
 "Right now I probably use Maple more to obtain numbers and graphs from
the special functions after I've figured out which ones I need
from Abramowitz."
 "Perhaps an online version of Abramowitz added to
Maple would be very helpful?"
 Rob Gross (BC)

"I use it for notation and definitions, with the occasional
numerical value. These days, though, I don't often run into a
numerical value that I can't get out of a computer program."
 Catherine Roberts (Northern Arizona U)

"I use the information on special functions the most  Error and
Gamma, to be precise. It would be nice to have MORE information
about special functions in there  plus on transforms like the
Mellin transform. The kind of information that I look up in my
Erdeli Higher Transcendental Functions would be helpful."

"I also look up information about the integrals w/infinite
limits, to seek alternate forms and such."
Handbook of Mathematical Functions
 Presently contains
 notation
 definitions
 relationships (asymptotics, etc)
 algorithms for numerical values
 numerical values
 Possible enhancements
 additional functions
 more algorithms
 actual code
 more/better graphics (such as 3D)
 interactive capability
Abramowitz and Stegun: Extensions I
 Tables/algorithms: static and dynamic (local or remote running)
 Graphs of values: 2D and 3D, static and dynamic
 Searching (with wild cards) for: (1) all words in product, (2) human
created index
 Write content in a "meta language" translatable to
Mathematica, Macsyma, etc. Note sin x cos x.
 Enter integral (differential equation, or recursion relation) and
have product determine appropriate functions
 For each function, show relationship to other specified
special functions
 Print interaction results with book quality formatting
Abramowitz and Stegun: Extensions II
 Add links to relevant web sites, or include if possible
 If discrete special functions included
add graphical listing capabilities (i.e., necklaces at
http://wwwang.kfunigraz.ac.at/~fripert/fga/kerber1.html)
 Other capabilities include:
 Save searches for reuse
 Allow notes to be taken and stored
 Allow regions to be highlighted
 Integrate with speech readers
 ...
Abramowitz and Stegun: Recommendations I
 Determine content
 Determine allowable queries
 Determine response to queries
 Determine additional electronic functionality
 Define unique representation of all functions for authors.
Example: the ClebschGordan coefficients are (j_{1}j_{2}m_{1}m_{2} j_1j_2jm),
this j_{2} is not a Bessel function.
 Determine components and content of sample chapter(s)
 Have graphic artist design the style of the work
(both print and electronic versions)
 Design and construct interface
 Design and construct databases
 Design and construct codes to populate databases
Abramowitz and Stegun: Recommendations II
 Create style guide for authors
Example: crossplatform functionality requires:
 all lowercase file names
 no special characters in file names (such as "." or "&")
 Phase in steps slowly
 Do extensive testing
Example of phases for G&R
 Phase I:
* Make the content of the book electronic.
* Index integrals
* Use interface similar to
http://www.mathtable.com/egr/
 Phase II:
* Allow integrals to be entered in Macsyma notation, Mathematica
notation, etc
* Integrals translated: as input to TeX, input to Maple, etc.
* Call to appropriate computational engine
* Locate class of integrals corresponding to the input integral.
 Phase III:
* Translate integrals to a "processing" language
(Macsyma? Lisp?).
* Perform simple "verification" of the integrals.
* Search engine locates a specific desired integral.
 Phase IV:
* Add pointandclick interface for easy integral entry
 Phase V:
* Include a computation engine to evaluate integrals not tabulated.
 Phase VI:
* Web site for users to contribute new integrals to the "master
list".
Mathematical books
Great reference books in applied mathematics:
 Handbook of Mathematical Functions (A&S)
 Standard Mathematical Tables & Formulae (CRC) (editorinchief)
 Tables of Integrals, Series, and Products (G&R) (navigator, in process)
 Handbook of Differential Equations (HODE) (author, navigator)