Talk by Daniel Zwillinger
Raytheon
5 April 2001
This file contains:
(1) a list of slide titles (hyperlinked), and
(2) the contents of each slide.
A pdf version of the talk is
available here

Polya theory

Abstract

Outline

Daniel Zwillinger

Combinatorial problems

Sample selection

Balls into cells

Example: Switching functions (I)

Example: Switching functions (II)

Example: Radar filtering (I)

Example: Radar filtering (II)

Example: Radar filtering (III)

Example: Radar filtering (IV)

Counting transition diagrams

Permutation groups: Fast review

Permutation groups: Example

Burnside's Lemma

Example: 4bead necklaces

Example: Necklaces with colored beads (I)

Example: Necklaces with colored beads (II)

Example: Rotations of an equilateral triangle

Example: Rotations of an equilateral triangle with colored beads (I)

Example: Rotations of an equilateral triangle with colored beads (II)

Special case of Polya's Theorem

Example: Necklaces with colored beads (III)

Example: Necklaces with colored beads (IV)

Example: Rotations of an equilateral triangle with colored beads (III)

Permutation groups: Cycle index

Polya's Theorem

Example: Necklaces with colored beads (V a)

Example: Necklaces with colored beads (V b)

Example: Necklaces with colored beads (V c)

Example: Necklaces with colored beads (V d)

Example: Necklaces with colored beads (V e)

Example: Rotations of an equilateral triangle with colored beads (IV)

Conclusion

References
(With a radar application motivation)
Daniel Zwillinger, PhD
5 April 2001
Sudbury 11623
telephone 41660
Daniel_I_Zwillinger@raytheon.com
http://www.mathtable.com/zwillinger/talks/20010405/
http://nesystemsengineering.rsc.ray.com/training/memo.polya.pdf
This lecture will show how Polya theory can be used in counting
objects, which is often the design basis for statistical tests.
Specifically, Polya theory determines the number of distinct
equivalence classes of objects. It can also give counts for specific
types of patterns within equivalence classes. While sounding
esoteric, this simpletoapply technique easily counts nonisomorphic
(i.e., different) graphs, and many other combinatorial structures. An
application to radar filtering of hardlimited data will be used to
motivate the topic.
 Introduction
 Who am I? Why am I talking?
 Talk is about combinatorial counting method
 Problem motivation
 Switching functions
 Radar filtering
 Necklaces:
using 3 beads of 3 different colors,
how many different necklaces are there?
 Polya theory
 Permutation groups
 Burnside's Lemma
 Education: MIT, Caltech
 Joined Raytheon in 2001 (Sr Principal Engineer)
 Formerly at: RPI,
JPL, BBN, IDA, MITRE,
Exxon,
Sandia Labs,
Ironbridge Networks,
consulting
 Broad expertise in applied mathematics
(continuous and discrete)
 Books on:
differential equations,
statistics,
integration methods,
table of integrals
 Editorinchief of edition of CRC's
Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulae
 Home page: http://www.mathtable.com/zwillinger
 Combinatorial optimization
 How to define a problem?
 How many solutions are there?
 How to identify the solutions?
 How to find the best solution?
 Today's focus is on the number of solutions
 Standard counting problems (next 2 slides)
 Generating functions
 Standard problems (assignment problem, etc.)
 Polya theory
Choosing a sample of size r from m objects
Repetitions allowed? 
Order counts? 
The sample is called an 
Number of ways to choose the sample 
No 
No 
rcombination 
C(m,r) 
No 
Yes 
rpermutation 
P(m,r) 
Yes 
No 
rcombination with replacement 
C^{R}(m,r) 
Yes 
Yes 
rpermutation with replacement 
P^{R}(m,r) 
Distinguish the cells 
Distinguish the balls 
Can cells be empty 
Number of ways to place n balls into k cells 
Yes 
Yes 
Yes 
k^{n} 
Yes 
Yes 
No 

Yes 
No 
Yes 

Yes 
No 
No 

No 
Yes 
Yes 

No 
Yes 
No 

No 
No 
Yes 

No 
No 
No 
p_{k}(n) 
 is a Stirling cycle number
 p_{k}(n) is the number of partitions of n into k parts
 A switching function (Boolean function) assigns a 0 or 1 to each
bit string of length n
 There are 2^{2n} different switching functions
(For n=4 have 65,536 switching functions)
 Allowing symmetries, there are
only 3,984 different switching functions (see [2])!
 Allowing an inverter and symmetries, there are
only 222 different switching functions (see [2])!
 Polya theory easily gives the number 222.
 D be a ``detection'', N is a ``no detection''
 R is a ``report'', ``'' is ``no report''
 Sample filter result for ``2 out of 3'' filter
 ``2 out of 3'' filter has 4 states:
 State ``W'', last two input elements are ``NN''
 State ``X'', last two input elements are ``ND''
 State ``Y'', last two input elements are ``DN''
 State ``Z'', last two input elements are ``DD''
Transition diagram is
``N'' is shown as a solid line
``D'' is shown as a dashed line
 For iid inputs (D has a probability of p) have transition matrix
From state
 Usual eigenanalysis yields steady state distribution:
state 
W 
X 
Y 
Z 
probability 
(1p)^{2} 
p(1p) 
p(1p) 
p^{2} 

Need to know the number of directed graphs with outdegree one for different
numbers of vertices.
 Find (using Polya theory)
number of states S 
2 
3 
4 
naive counting S^{2S} 
16 
729 
65536 
number of actual filters 
10 
129 
2836 

Use Sloane [4] to identify sequence A054050:
10, 129, 2836, 83061, 3076386,
136647824, ...:``Number of nonisomorphic binary nstate automata''
[5]
 Consider permutations of

means
,
,...,
. 
Operation: means: permute by then by
 can be closed to form a group G
 ``a'' is invariant if ; ``'' is number of elements invariant under
 Write as unique product of disjoint cycles;
``'' is number of cycles in
 An equivalence relation S (on G) is defined by ``''
iff there exists a such that
If with
Then
If
Then the number of equivalence classes in S is

 G=2

 Burnside's lemma: equivalence classes
 The 2 equivalence classes are and



 G=G^{*}=2
 , : Burnside
 , : Burnside
 The 6 equivalence classes are:
,,,,,  Note: 4 classes of 1 element, 2 classes of 2 elements

 G=3
 , ,
 Burnside lemma: equivalence class
 The single equivalence class is
 Three different colored beads
(Black, White, Gray) on an equilateral triangle. Allow rotations.
If
Then the number of distinct colorings in S(D,C) is
Number of equivalence classes for various k and m

k=2 beads 
k=3 beads 
k=4 beads 
k=5 beads 
k=6 beads 
m=2 colors 
3 

10 
20 
36 
m=3 colors 
6 
18 
45 
185 
378 
m=4 colors 
10 
40 
136 
544 
2080 
Let color c have ``weight'' w(c). The pattern inventory describes
the colorings, of a certain kind, as functions of the weights.
Then the pattern inventory of colorings in S(D,C) is
Note: for w(c)=1 have
If m=2 colors (Black, White) available:
x_{1}=(B+W),
x_{2}=(B^{2}+W^{2})
If m=2 colors (B, W) are available, then
If m=3 colors (Black, White, Shade) available:
x_{1}=(B+W+S),
x_{2}=(B^{2}+W^{2}+S^{2})
 For k=2 have 6 distinct colorings:
 For k=3 have 18 distinct colorings:
 Many applications of Polya theory:
 bracelets (rotations of an ngon)
For n=6 find
 photomasks for chips
 molecular structures
 nonisomorphic graphs
 seating arrangements
 Polya theory is more advanced than shown here
 Daniel Zwillinger can help in formulating and solving discrete
and continuous mathematical problems
(Sudbury 11565, telephone 9784401660)
 1

For pictures of colored necklaces, bracelets, unlabeled necklaces,
etc, visit
http://www.theory.csc.uvic.ca/~cos/gen/neck.html
(be careful of terms!)
 2

Harvard Computation Laboratory Staff,
Synthesis of electronic computing and control circuits,
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1951.
 3

Fred S. Roberts,
Applied Combinatorics,
PrenticeHall, 1984.
 4

Sloane's online encyclopedia:
http://www.research.att.com/~njas/sequences/
 5

F. Harary and E. Palmer,
``Number of nonisomorphic binary nstate automata'',
Graphical Enumeration, 1973.
 6

Daniel Zwillinger,
CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulae,
CRC,
Boca Raton, FL,
1995.